Laktoferrin og jernopptak

DET UNIKE PROTEINET DU GANSKE SIKKERT ALDRI HAR HØRT OM

Laktoferrin er et molekyl som de fleste aldri har hørt om. Laktoferrin ble oppdaget på 1930-tallet, og ble først kjent på grunn av de sterke jernbindende egenskaper. Siden den gang har det vært gjennomført store mengder studier om alt fra hvordan proteinet ser ut og fungerer, til hvilke funksjoner det har i kroppen1. Forskerne har blant annet studert proteinets rolle i kroppens jernopptak2, næringsverdien hos spebarn3, funksjon i immunforsvaret4-6 og evne til å hindre bakteriell7-12 og annen mikrobiell vekst13-21.

4

LAKTOFERRIN SIN ROLLE I JERNOPPTAKET 

Jern er viktig fordi kroppen vår bruker jern gjennom flere forskjellige biokjemiske reaksjoner. Kroppen sitt jernopptak skjer når jern fra den maten vi spiser blir tatt opp i tarmen, og transportert rundt i kroppen gjennom blodet. Kroppens opptak av jern fra mat er nødvendig for oss mennesker fordi det er den eneste måten vi får i oss jern.

Et dårlig jernopptak kan føre til helseproblemer som blant annet blodmangel/anemi22. I tillegg til dette er det noen sykdommer som kan forårsake lavt jernnivå eller påvirke jernopptaket negativt. Dette kan for eksempel bli påvirket av blødersykdommer eller ulike former for betennelser i tarmen (f. eks. Crohns sykdom, IBS, Ulceriøs Cholitt)23,24

5
4

Forskerne har funnet ut at laktoferrin har flere ulike roller i kroppen hvorav en av disse er transport av jern. Det er flere studier som viser at laktoferrin binder seg til jern fra maten vi spiser2,3,25,26, og dermed bidrar til å transportere dette rundt i kroppen27-31. Derfor kan laktoferrin være nyttig dersom man sliter med et lavt jernnivå eller blodmangel. Sammenligninger av laktoferrin og jerntilskudd har vist at laktoferrin er like effektivt (eller bedre) for jernopptaket som (enn) jerntilskudd2,25,27,32-36, men uten bivirkninger som er vanlig å oppleve av jerntilskudd25,32,34,36.

Laktoferrin sine jernbindende egenskaper har flere helseeffekter i tillegg til å bidra til jernopptaket. På grunn av disse jernbindende egenskapene bidrar laktoferrin til å forhindre veksten av dårlige tarmbakterier9,10,37,38. Dette er viktig fordi dårlige bakterier kan forårsake ulike former for betennelse. En av konsekvensene av betennelse i kroppen er å senke jernnivåene i blodet39-41.

Derfor kan et kosttilskudd med laktoferrin bidra til å øke jernopptaket naturlig, samtidig som det har en betennelsesdempende effekt.

Vi håper du vil følge oss!

Referanser

1.            Rosa L, Cutone A, Lepanto MS, Paesano R, Valenti P. Lactoferrin: A Natural Glycoprotein Involved in Iron and Inflammatory Homeostasis. Int J Mol Sci. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute; 2017 Sep 15;18(9):1985. 

2.            Lönnerdal B, Bryant A. Absorption of iron from recombinant human lactoferrin in young US women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):305–9. 

3.            Davidsson L, Kastenmayer P, Yuen M, Lönnerdal B, Hurrell RF. Influence of lactoferrin on iron absorption from human milk in infants. Pediatr Res. Nature Publishing Group; 1994 Jan;35(1):117–24. 

4.            Actor JK, Hwang S-A, Kruzel ML. Lactoferrin as a natural immune modulator. Curr Pharm Des. NIH Public Access; 2009;15(17):1956–73. 

5.            Legrand D. Overview of Lactoferrin as a Natural Immune Modulator. J Pediatr. 2016 Jun;173 Suppl:S10–5. 

6.            Telang S. Lactoferrin: A Critical Player in Neonatal Host Defense. Nutrients. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute; 2018 Sep 4;10(9):1228. 

7.            Acosta-Smith E, Viveros-Jiménez K, Canizalez-Román A, Reyes-Lopez M, Bolscher JGM, Nazmi K, et al. Bovine Lactoferrin and Lactoferrin-Derived Peptides Inhibit the Growth of Vibrio cholerae and Other Vibrio species. Front Microbiol. Frontiers; 2017;8:2633. 

8.            Reznikov EA, Comstock SS, Hoeflinger JL, Wang M, Miller MJ, Donovan SM. Dietary Bovine Lactoferrin Reduces Staphylococcus aureus in the Tissues and Modulates the Immune Response in Piglets Systemically Infected with S. aureus. Curr Dev Nutr. 2018 Apr;2(4):nzy001. 

9.            Allison LM, Walker LA, Sanders BJ, Yang Z, Eckert G, Gregory RL. Effect of Human Milk and its Components on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Formation. J Clin Pediatr Dent.  Clinical Pediatric Dentistry; 2015;39(3):255–61. 

10.         Ochoa TJ, Brown EL, Guion CE, Chen JZ, McMahon RJ, Cleary TG. Effect of lactoferrin on enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Biochem Cell Biol. 2006 Jun;84(3):369–76. 

11.         Ellison RT, Giehl TJ. Killing of gram-negative bacteria by lactoferrin and lysozyme. J Clin Invest. American Society for Clinical Investigation; 1991 Oct;88(4):1080–91. 

12.         Edde L, Hipolito RB, Hwang FF, Headon DR, Shalwitz RA, Sherman MP. Lactoferrin protects neonatal rats from gut-related systemic infection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. American Physiological SocietyBethesda, MD; 2001 Nov;281(5):G1140–50. 

13.         Seganti L, Di Biase AM, Marchetti M, Pietrantoni A, Tinari A, Superti F. Antiviral activity of lactoferrin towards naked viruses. Biometals. 2004 Jun;17(3):295–9.

14.         Pietrantoni A, Di Biase AM, Tinari A, Marchetti M, Valenti P, Seganti L, et al. Bovine lactoferrin inhibits adenovirus infection by interacting with viral structural polypeptides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. American Society for Microbiology (ASM); 2003 Aug;47(8):2688–91. 

15.         Wu HF, Monroe DM, Church FC. Characterization of the glycosaminoglycan-binding region of lactoferrin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Feb 20;317(1):85–92. 

16.         Xu YY, Samaranayake YH, Samaranayake LP, Nikawa H. In vitro susceptibility of Candida species to lactoferrin. Med Mycol. 1999 Feb;37(1):35–41. 

17.         Wakabayashi H, Oda H, Yamauchi K, Abe F. Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections. J Infect Chemother. 2014 Nov;20(11):666–71. 

18.         Yamauchi K, Hiruma M, Yamazaki N, Wakabayashi H, Kuwata H, Teraguchi S, et al. Oral administration of bovine lactoferrin for treatment of tinea pedis. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Mycoses. 2000;43(5):197–202. 

19.         Fernandes KE, Carter DA. The Antifungal Activity of Lactoferrin and Its Derived Peptides: Mechanisms of Action and Synergy with Drugs against Fungal Pathogens. Front Microbiol. Frontiers; 2017;8:2. 

20.         Samaranayake YH, Samaranayake LP, Wu PC, So M. The antifungal effect of lactoferrin and lysozyme on Candida krusei and Candida albicans. APMIS. 1997 Nov;105(11):875–83. 

21.         Nikawa H, Samaranayake LP, Tenovuo J, Pang KM, Hamada T. The fungicidal effect of human lactoferrin on Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Arch Oral Biol. 1993 Dec;38(12):1057–63. 

22.         Lynch SR. Why nutritional iron deficiency persists as a worldwide problem. J Nutr. 2011 Apr 1;141(4):763S–768S. 

23.         Semrin G, Fishman DS, Bousvaros A, Zholudev A, Saunders AC, Correia CE, et al. Impaired intestinal iron absorption in Crohn's disease correlates with disease activity and markers of inflammation. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Dec;12(12):1101–6. 

24.         Cherayil BJ, Ellenbogen S, Shanmugam NN. Iron and intestinal immunity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2011 Oct;27(6):523–8. 

25.         Nappi C, Tommaselli GA, Morra I, Massaro M, Formisano C, Di Carlo C. Efficacy and tolerability of oral bovine lactoferrin compared to ferrous sulfate in pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia: a prospective controlled randomized study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111); 2009;88(9):1031–5. 

26.         Saito N, Iio T, Yoshikawa Y, Ohtsuka H, Orino K. Heme-binding of bovine lactoferrin: the potential presence of a heme-binding capacity in an ancestral transferrin gene. Biometals. Springer Netherlands; 2018 Feb;31(1):131–8. 

27.         Ke C, Lan Z, Hua L, Ying Z, Humina X, Jia S, et al. Iron metabolism in infants: influence of bovine lactoferrin from iron-fortified formula. Nutrition. 2015 Feb;31(2):304–9. 

28.         Sharp P, Srai S-K. Molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal iron absorption. World J Gastroenterol. Baishideng Publishing Group Inc; 2007 Sep 21;13(35):4716–24. 

29.         Suzuki YA, Shin K, Lönnerdal B. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a human intestinal lactoferrin receptor. Biochemistry. 2001 Dec 25;40(51):15771–9. 

30.         Paesano R, Torcia F, Berlutti F, Pacifici E, Ebano V, Moscarini M, et al. Oral administration of lactoferrin increases hemoglobin and total serum iron in pregnant women. Biochem Cell Biol. 2006 Jun;84(3):377–80. 

31.         Paesano R, Pietropaoli M, Gessani S, Valenti P. The influence of lactoferrin, orally administered, on systemic iron homeostasis in pregnant women suffering of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. Biochimie. 2009 Jan;91(1):44–51. 

32.         Abu Hashim H, Foda O, Ghayaty E. Lactoferrin or ferrous salts for iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017 Dec;219:45–52. 

33.         Darwish AM, Fouly HA, Saied WH, Farah E. Lactoferrin plus health education versus total dose infusion (TDI) of low-molecular weight (LMW) iron dextran for treating iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. Taylor & Francis; 2018 Jan 25;47(2):1–7. 

34.         Rezk M, Dawood R, Abo-Elnasr M, Halaby Al A, Marawan H. Lactoferrin versus ferrous sulphate for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2nd ed. 2016;29(9):1387–90. 

35.         Koikawa N, Nagaoka I, Yamaguchi M, Hamano H, Yamauchi K, Sawaki K. Preventive effect of lactoferrin intake on anemia in female long distance runners. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry; 2008 Apr;72(4):931–5. 

36.         Paesano R, Pacifici E, Benedetti S, Berlutti F, Frioni A, Polimeni A, et al. Safety and efficacy of lactoferrin versus ferrous sulphate in curing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in hereditary thrombophilia pregnant women: an interventional study. Biometals. Springer Netherlands; 2014 Oct;27(5):999–1006.

37.         Elass-Rochard E, Roseanu A, Legrand D, Trif M, Salmon V, Motas C, et al. Lactoferrin-lipopolysaccharide interaction: involvement of the 28-34 loop region of human lactoferrin in the high-affinity binding to Escherichia coli 055B5 lipopolysaccharide. Biochem J. Portland Press Ltd; 1995 Dec 15;312 ( Pt 3)(Pt 3):839–45. 

38.         Tomita M, Bellamy W, Takase M, Yamauchi K, Wakabayashi H, Kawase K. Potent antibacterial peptides generated by pepsin digestion of bovine lactoferrin. J Dairy Sci. 1991 Dec;74(12):4137–42. 

39.         Ganz T, Nemeth E. Hepcidin and iron homeostasis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Sep;1823(9):1434–43. 

40.         Liu J, Sun B, Yin H, Liu S. Hepcidin: A Promising Therapeutic Target for Iron Disorders: A Systematic Review. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Apr;95(14):e3150. 

41.         Sangkhae V, Nemeth E. Regulation of the Iron Homeostatic Hormone Hepcidin. Adv Nutr. 2017 Jan;8(1):126–36. 

Kontakt oss